译者访谈系列:中国的城乡教育差距(二)

核心提示:“译者访谈”是我们推出的系列音频采访。所有音频可以通过wuala上的链接免费下载(陆续更新中),有苹果设备的可以先连接VPN,然后在iTunes上用“译者”搜索即可订阅下载。


【“译者访谈”系列节目的片花和节选就是“中国声音”集锦】

本次访谈的音频可以在这里下载收听(上)

本期嘉宾:中国知名的人权律师许志永博士和“中国见红”的博主Tom,访谈以中英双语进行,因此参与的译者成员除了主持小米之外,还有志愿口译者王伟。以下是中英双语的文字版。

WW:Tom 刚才介绍了一下典型的中国乡村学校的样子,水泥的墙、水泥的地,很少有教具和多媒体工具,一个班上课的话就是老师站在前面讲了半个小时、一个小时,学生坐在下面听,基本上没有什么互动。(在我教学的大学中,甚至没有合格的黑板。)

Tom:So in these schools, the blackboards are often just a piece of wood painted black. Even though there are many standards established for education in China, the educators are evaluated, the schools always get passed regardless the quality of the building and teachers. I don’t think this is a secret, this is sth. well known, but hasn’t really been addressed.

WW:这些学校里的黑板真的就是一块木头板,涂上黑漆挂在那儿,条件很差。而且师资力量也相当差,一般来说他们需要通过考试,但基本上所有学校都能通过考试,(无论他们的条件和师资力量如何糟糕。我不认为这是什么秘密,这是众所周知的事情,但是却没有被很好地解决。)

YZ:因此在这种学校中,学生们其实学不到太多东西,而中国的现实是你必须要通过很严厉的高考才可以进入到大学。对吧?

YZ:So in this kind of schools, it’s very hard for the students to learn anything, or be an expert on anything. The more severe thing is that they have to pass the college-entrance-exam to get into the colleges.

Tom:I discovered an interesting thing when I was in Sichuan last year. I discovered many of my students had very low geography skills, not just world geography, they weren’t even sure what provinces touch Sichuan. When we started asking them, they told us in their middle schools, the teachers knew that the geography is not under Gaokao, so simply claimed they had geography classes, they were on the schedule, but there were no geography class, they were just using it as extra time to prepare for Gaokao.

WW:Tom去年在四川教书的时候碰到了很有趣的现象。当地的中学生都不知道四川和其他那些省接壤,他们基本上没有任何地理概念,而不仅仅是世界地理。问起来的话他们说说是留给他们上地理课,实际上是把地理课的时间拿出来准备高考,因为地理不在高考的科目内。

YZ:那么志永,我想问问你,我知道你最近都在何以一些打工子弟学校的校长们则不同,你看到在城市当中的打工子弟学校的情况又是怎么样呢?

YZ:Zhiyong, my next question is for you. I know you have been working with some of the principals of Migrants Workers Children Schools in suburb of Beijing. What have you seen? How about the situations there? Are they good schools? What’s the quality of the education there?

XZY:以北京为例,北京的打工子弟学校和公立学校相比的话还是有很大的差距,它们的校舍可能是旧的,可能是租用某些废弃厂房的办公室,或是一些很破旧的小学校,有些学校没有操场,总之他们的设施比较落后,他们的老师的待遇也比公立学校的差很多,所以老师的水平也会有很大的差距。

WW:Take Beijing’s migrant schools as examples. Dr. Xu has been working with some principals of these kind of schools. According to him, the conditions about these schools are still quite lacking behind in terms of classrooms, buildings, a lot of the buildings are very old and broken. The quality of the teachers vary. Since their salaries and benefits are lower compared to those in the public schools in the cities, they might not be up to standards comparing to their counterparts in the cities.

YZ:那么对一对在城市打工的农村父母来讲,他们就要选择是把孩子送回的乡村去上那种刚才Tom描述的质量很差的乡村学校,还是留在城里上这种也不是很高质量的打工子弟学校,他们通常会做什么选择?在这两种都不很好的选择当中,他们会选哪一种呢?

YZ:My question goes like this: if I were a migrant worker working in a big city, I have two options, either send my children back to the rural schools which are poor as Tom just described, or I can live with my children in the city, which is great for me, but they have to go to the Migrant Workers Children Schools. Which one would most of the migrant workers choose? 这个问题我想先问一下志永。Zhiyong, would you like to tell us?

XZY:这个问题有点复杂。首先,家长们愿意选择公立学校,从法律和政策的角度来看,公里学校也应该对所有的新移民开放,他们有权利进入公立学校。但是公立学校对他们提供的教育是远远不够的,尤其是在有些打工学校聚集的地方,公立学校是缺失的。就是他们想进公立学校,想……[断线]

WW:The choices for the migrant parents are actually complicated. By law, their kids are entitled to enter the public schools in the cities, but in reality, they don’t get the quota or the support for their kids to get into those schools.

XZY:虽然打工子弟学校跟公立学校相比差很多,但是有很多人不得不选择打工子弟学校。其实现的打工子弟学校最重要的一点是他们能够把孩子带在自己身边,即使如此,在孩子读到初中以后,也不得不回到农村去,因为他们无法在居住城市参加高考,因为他们没有城市的户口。户口制度是导致中国出现大量留守儿童的最根本的原因。因为即使把孩子留在身边但到初中以后因为无法参加高考,所以还是要把孩子送回老家去做留守儿童。那么到底选择上哪种学校对家长来说是比较复杂的。

WW:It’s a complicated story. Even though the Migrant Workers Children Schools are poorer than the public schools, the conditions are not so good, they are popular because the parents can get their kids into those schools easier and they can live with their kids. But when they are old enough for high schools, they are forced to return to their villages because they are not eligible to take the Gaokao in the cities; they have to go back where they Hukou are registered. So they have to return to villages when the kids are about to enter high schools.

(TBD)

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